What is FII and DII?

  • 16-Oct-2023
  • 2 mins read

In the world of investments, you often come across two important terms: FII and DII. FII, or foreign institutional investor, refers to folks or groups who invest in a country’s assets from another place.

In India, it mainly means international investors putting money into the country’s financial markets. On the flip side, DII, or domestic institutional investors, are people or organizations who invest in India’s financial stuff and live right there.

FIIs and DIIs are affected by politics and economics, which is interesting. Their judgments can also affect a country’s currency flow. Let’s compare FIIs and DIIs in depth.

What is FII?

FII stands for Foreign Institutional Investor. It refers to international individuals, funds, or organizations that invest in a country’s financial markets while being based outside that country.

They play a crucial role in global investments, injecting foreign capital into local economies, and their decisions are influenced by political and economic developments.

In India, for instance, FIIs are essential players in the stock and bond markets, contributing to the country’s economic growth and financial stability.

Types of FIIs

Foreign Institutional Investors in India can be categorized into various types based on their investment objectives and strategies. Here are some common types of FIIs in India:

  • Sovereign Wealth Funds (SWFs): These are government-owned investment funds that invest in foreign countries’ financial assets, including India. SWFs often seek diversified portfolios and stable returns.
  • Foreign Banks and Financial Institutions: Foreign Banks and Financial Institutions are overseas-based banking and financial entities that participate as FIIs in the Indian market. They invest in Indian securities, bringing in capital and expertise to the local financial landscape.
  • Foreign Pension Funds: These are institutional investors managing pension funds from abroad. They invest in Indian markets with a long-term perspective, often seeking stable and reliable returns to fund pension obligations.
  • Mutual Funds: Foreign mutual funds operate in India and pool money from investors abroad to invest in Indian securities. They offer diversification options to foreign investors looking to access Indian markets.

Other than these, there are the following types of FIIs:

  • Investment trusts
  • Asset Management Company
  • Insurance/Reinsurance Companies
  • Foreign Government Agencies
  • Endowments
  • Foundations
  • University Funds
  • Charitable Trusts

What is DII?

Domestic institutional investors (DIIs) in India are individuals or organizations seeking profit through investments in the Indian stock market, including insurance firms, mutual funds, and other financial instruments.

Their investment decisions are influenced by both political and economic factors, akin to foreign institutional investors (FIIs).

DIIs wield substantial influence on net investment flows within the Indian economy, particularly when FIIs are selling stocks. This underscores the crucial role DIIs play in shaping the functioning of India’s stock market.

Types of DIIs

In India, DIIs encompass a diverse range of entities that play a crucial role in the country’s financial markets. Here are some prominent types of DIIs:

  • Mutual Funds: Mutual funds in India are investment vehicles that pool money from multiple investors and professionally manage it by investing in diversified portfolios of stocks, bonds, or other securities to achieve specific financial objectives.
  • Insurance companies: Insurance companies in India invest part of their funds in stocks to generate returns for policyholders. These investments help insurers meet their financial obligations and provide policyholders with potential capital appreciation.
  • Banks and Financial Institutions: Banks and financial institutions in India, as (DIIs), invest in stocks and other securities to generate returns on their surplus funds, thereby increasing their capital and contributing to the country’s financial markets.
  • Provident Funds: Employee provident funds (EPFs) and other such funds managed by government or private entities invest a portion of their corpus in the stock market.
  • Non-Banking Financial Companies (NBFCs): Some NBFCs engage in stock market investments as part of their asset management activities.

These various types of DIIs collectively contribute to the liquidity and stability of the Indian stock market. Their investment decisions can have a significant impact on market trends and performance.


Aspect Foreign Institutional Investors (FIIs) Domestic Institutional Investors (DIIs)
Origin Overseas investors, non-Indian entities Indian investors, including institutions
Investment Location Invest in the Indian stock market from abroad Invest within India’s domestic stock market
Regulatory Control Subject to SEBI (Securities and Exchange Board of India) regulations Also regulated by SEBI, but with some variations
Investment Focus Often short-term, portfolio investments Primarily long-term, stable investments
Influence on Markets Can significantly impact market trends and volatility Can influence but typically less volatile
Investment Objectives Seek short-term gains, capital appreciation Focus on wealth preservation and income generation
Impact on Exchange Rate Can affect the exchange rate due to large capital flows Generally has a more localized impact
Voting Rights Typically do not exercise voting rights Often exercise voting rights in line with their holdings
Role in Market Corrections Can contribute to market corrections during outflows Tend to provide stability during market downturns
Taxation Subject to different tax rules, often subject to withholding tax Subject to Indian taxation rules
Investment Behavior Prone to sudden inflows and outflows More stable and predictable investment behavior



FIIs and DIIs are vital players in the Indian financial landscape. FIIs bring in foreign capital, contributing to market volatility, while DIIs, comprising Indian entities, stabilize markets during FII outflows.

Together, they influence India’s economic stability and stock market dynamics, reflecting the interconnected nature of global and domestic financial systems. Understanding their roles is crucial for investors and policymakers alike.




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